T O P

Lucy Lived in the Trees

first_imgA new CT scan of Lucy’s bones show adaptations for living in the trees.Early hominin Lucy had powerful arms from years of tree-climbing (New Scientist): “Lucy, the world famous early bipedal hominin, was a swinger,” Colin Barras writes. “Scans of her skeleton confirm that she had an exceptionally powerful upper body, thanks to spending a lot of time climbing trees.” This may be the “final word on Lucy’s lifestyle,” he says; “…Lucy had long chimp-like arms and fingers – features that would seem ideal if her life involved a great deal of tree-climbing.”Human ancestor ‘Lucy’ was a tree climber, new evidence suggests (Science Daily): This press release from the University of Texas at Austin says “analysis of special CT scans by scientists from The Johns Hopkins University and the University of Texas at Austin suggests the female hominin spent enough time in the trees that evidence of this behavior is preserved in the internal structure of her bones.” For years paleoanthropologists claimed Lucy walked upright. That view has moved recently toward a more arboreal lifestyle. “Lucy’s upper limbs were heavily built, similar to champion tree-climbing chimpanzees, supporting the idea that she spent time climbing and used her arms to pull herself up.”Bipedal Human Ancestor ‘Lucy’ Was a Tree Climber, Too (Live Science): “High-resolution computed X-ray tomography (CT) scans of long bones in Lucy’s arms reveal internal structures suggesting that her upper limbs were built for heavy load bearing — much like chimpanzees’ arms, which they use to pull themselves up tree trunks and to swing between branches.”The only way to maintain the missing-link status of Lucy is to keep her part of the time on the ground. Mindy Waisgerber illustrates that talking point in the Live Science article: “‘Lucy,’ an early human ancestor that lived 3 million years ago, walked on two legs,” she states forthrightly. “But while she had her feet firmly planted on the ground, her arms were reaching for the trees, a new study shows.”The results of the scan are published in PLoS One, an open-access journal where anyone can check the data. The authors say their data reinforce the view that Lucy was comfortable both on the ground and in the trees. “It is clear that A.L. 288–1 and australopiths in general show many postcranial adaptations to terrestrial bipedality and probably walked in a basically human-like manner when on the ground,” they begin, citing eight prior publications. Yet their own work shows otherwise.However, we found that A.L. 288–1 also exhibits morphological features that imply substantial differences in locomotor behavior from that in modern humans or early Homo. Lucy’s femoral/humeral diaphyseal strength proportion indicates greater muscular loading of her upper limb relative to her lower limb than is characteristic of either modern humans or Homo erectus, and more similar to that of chimpanzees. While other behavioral explanations are conceivable (such as increased upper limb use related to food procurement or defense), given the range of morphological evidence throughout her skeleton that is consistent with greater arboreality, the most likely explanation is that Lucy climbed trees with a greater reliance on her upper extremity much more frequently than modern humans or early Homo (with the exception of H. habilis sensu stricto).A search through the paper for actual evidence supporting adaptation for terrestrial life shows mainly suppositions and lateral passes to earlier writers. This posturing is clear in the ending Conclusions section. Remember that nobody ever witnessed Lucy walking on the ground in real life. And if she did, they admit it was probably awkward, just as it is for chimps and bonobos today who can walk upright for short periods.Although bipedal when on the ground, the limb bone structural proportions of A.L. 288–1 provide evidence for substantially more arboreal, i.e., climbing behavior than either modern humans or Homo erectus. The frequency and magnitude of force required to stimulate bone modeling and remodeling of this kind implies that this behavior was adaptively significant and not a trivial component of the locomotor repertoire. Possible reasons for using the trees more often include foraging for food and escape from predators. Furthermore, there is evidence that terrestrial bipedal gait in A.L. 288–1 may have differed in subtle but important ways from that of later Homo, decreasing locomotor efficiency when on the ground and limiting terrestrial mobility. Overall muscular strength relative to body size was likely greater than in Homo, perhaps reflecting less reliance on technology for food procurement/processing and defense. Where possible to evaluate, the same morphological attributes are present in other australopith specimens as well as H. habilis sensu stricto, i.e., OH 62 [13]. Overall these observations imply fundamental differences in ecology and behavior between australopiths and Homo erectus. It is likely that a number of different forms of terrestrial bipedality were practiced by early hominins, and that arboreal behavior remained an important part of the locomotor repertoire in particular taxa for millions of years.That last sentence is all supposition. What they actually found was a chimp-like climbing ape built for life in the trees. The australopiths are all ape-like; the Homo are all upright walkers with “fundamental differences in ecology and behavior.” The gap is widening, not closing.National Geographic has crow on its plate but hasn’t eaten it yet. Now that Donald Johanson is famous as an NG hero, will he recant? Not likely. Lucy is too valuable an icon for the imaginary world they live in. Too many articles have been written. Too many TV specials have been made. Evolutionists all sing the “I Love Lucy” jingle. She must be brought down from her treetop. They pull her down and shout, “Walk, Lucy, walk!” (Visited 58 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Apple confirms rumored interest in self-driving cars in letter to regulators

first_imgApple has finally confirmed its interest in self-driving cars through a letter to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).The letter, written by Apple’s director of product integrity Steven Kenner, said the company is “excited about the potential of automated systems in many areas, including transportation” and said there are “significant societal benefits of automated vehicles.”See Also: Apple in talks with suppliers to build augmented reality glassesApple also called for the regulator to not introduce too many rules that would harm the emerging industry. It made particular reference to newcomers in the automotive industry being blocked from entering, something Apple does not want to happen.Apple’s worst kept secretIt is the first public recognition from Apple of its self-driving plans, which is great considering it may be one of the worst kept secrets in Silicon Valley. Their driverless car efforts have allegedly been on the go for more than two years according to sources close to the company.In fact, their hidden efforts have attracted competitive attention. Elon Musk, Tesla’s CEO, slammed the iPhone giant earlier this year for poaching talent from his company to work on the secretive automotive project.Details of Apple’s car are still under wraps and we expect it to stay that way for a few years, as the company continues to acquire more talent, engineers, and partners. Rumors suggest that the company may take more of a software approach to the self-driving project, leaving the hardware and manufacturing to an automotive partner.Apple may find itself far behind some of the other players in the industry, if it takes too long to launch its autonomous car. Tesla already has thousands of AutoPilot testers, Google has driven over one million miles autonomously, and most automotive companies are pushing their own programs in the U.S., Europe, and Asia. IT Trends of the Future That Are Worth Paying A… Tags:#Apple#autonomous cars#driverless cars#Internet of Things#IoT#Machine Learning#Self-Driving 5 Ways IoT can Help to Reduce Automatic Vehicle… Related Posts center_img For Self-Driving Systems, Infrastructure and In… David Curry Break the Mold with Real-World Logistics AI and…last_img read more

World Cup 2011 Bangladesh captain Shakib Al Hasan

first_imgSkipper Shakib Al Hasan is young and is leading a young team at the World Cup. A good batsman, who can stay at the crease for long in demanding situations, Shakib will be hoping to prove his mettle in the mega tournament.Mashrafe Mortaza, Tamim Iqbal and Mohammad Ashraful are his trusted aides. Syed Rasel and Shahadat Hossain are good pacemen in the Bangladesh team. Often labelled as minnows, they can even spring a surprise.Shakib Al Hasan’s statisticslast_img

Dubai football club sacks Maradona as coach

first_imgThe captain of Argentina’s 1986 World Cup-winning team — Diego Maradona — was on Tuesday sacked as the coach of United Arab Emirates football club Al Wasl.The 51-year-old, who had signed a two-year contract with the Dubai-based club in May 2011, was dismissed after a board meeting.The legendary Argentine’s position had been in doubt since June, when the club’s entire board resigned following a trophy-less season.He joined Al Wasl following his firing as the national coach of Argentina. Before becoming coach of his home country in 2008, he coached Argentine first-division clubs Deportivo Mandiyu in 1994 and Racing Club in 1995.With Agency inputslast_img